Similarly, dogs and people speak different languages. Perhaps humans are from Earth, and dogs are from Pluto?
Unfortunately, you and your dog cannot sit down at the dinner table or lie together on the couch and express your feelings and perhaps even apologize. You, the human, are left with the entire burden of both interpreting your dog's foreign language and trying to deliver instructions in something other than your native tongue!
So - what to do? Ask yourself, "What conversation am I having with my dog when Problem X arises?"
For example - if your dog is pulling on the leash while you walk, look at the mechanics and positioning of you and your dog. Now put yourself in the dog's shoes. Does your dog think, "my pack leader is taking me for a walk", "I'm taking my human for a walk", or "OMG! I see and smell everything! It's total chaos...every man for himself"?
If you come to the conclusion that it's one of the latter two - you should feel good about yourself. After all, you now have a deeper understanding of your partner. :-)
One technique that can help you change the conversation is to re-trace your "go for a walk" ritual from the moment you decide you're going to venture out of the house. At what point does the situation transition from, "I'm calmly laying down on my dog-bed with the TV on in the background" to "it's party time, come on - let's go crazy!"?
Once you've identified that point - modify your demeanor so that the conversation you're having with your dog is, "I'm taking YOU for a walk. It will be a peaceful journey in which you will follow MY lead".
With walking in particular, forward progress should be made with you: physically out front, relaxed and confident, and acting purposefully (short potty break, bonding experience, fitness walk, etc).
When you blurt out in your cutesy-tootsy voice, "come on puppy, mommy's gonna take her little pumpkin out for a walk" - are you communicating relaxation, confidence, or purpose? Are you inviting insanity?
When the dog starts getting excited before you put the leash on, are you continuing the "go for a walk" routine - or do you stop there and wait for the dog to be calm before progressing? Excitement is fine at play time or when it's invited by you - be sure you're not unintentionally inviting excitement at walk time.
For other behavior issues, apply the same process: What is the conversation? How might the dog be interpreting the situation? When does the miscommunication start? What universal language gestures do I need to use to display my relaxed and confident demeanor? What universal language gestures do I need to use to clearly communicate what I want from my dog?